MicroGenDX is a proud member of the American Academy Of Oral And Systemic Health

Oral And Systemic Health

MicroGenDX’s Next Generation Sequencing Technology places the company in the premier position of creating the world’s largest and most valuable database of the oral microbiome.

Our Mission in Oral and Systemic Health is to have the leading oral microbiome database and bioinformatics library in the world. This database is continually updated to provide both researchers and practicing clinicians with the latest and most accurate data on the oral microbiome. This database will contribute greatly to our knowledge of how to improve human health.

If you’re interested in taking advantage of MicroGenDX’s diagnostics and bioinformatics library, please consult our research tab above for more information.

The connection between oral health and systemic health is well-documented and several published studies conclude that there is a connection between poor oral health and many systemic diseases.

Alzheimer’s Disease and Oral Health

  1. Dominy, Stephen S et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis in Alzheimer’s disease brains: Evidence for disease causation and treatment with small-molecule inhibitors.” Science advances vol. 5,1 eaau3333. 23 Jan. 2019, doi:10.1126/sciadv. aau 3333
  2. Haditsch, Ursula et al. ‘Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Neurodegeneration in Porphyromonas Gingivalis Infected Neurons with Persistent Expression of Active Gingipains’. 1 Jan. 2020: 1361 – 1376.
  3. Ingar Olsen, Sim K. Singhrao. (2020) Porphyromonas gingivalis infection may contribute to systemic and intracerebral amyloid-beta: implications for Alzheimer’s disease onset”Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 18:11, pages 1063-1066.
  4. Matsushita K, Yamada-Furukawa M, Kurosawa M, Shikama Y. “Periodontal Disease and Periodontal Disease-Related Bacteria Involved in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease”J Inflamm Res. 2020; 13:275-283.
  5. Miklossy, J. “Alzheimer’s disease – a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch’s and Hill’s criteria”J Neuroinflammation 8, 90 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-8-90
  6. Miklossy, J. (2011). “Emerging roles of pathogens in Alzheimer disease”Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, 13, E30. doi:10.1017/S1462399411002006
  7. Miklossy, J. Alzheimer’s disease – a neurospirochetosis. “Analysis of the evidence following Koch’s and Hill’s criteria”J Neuroinflammation 890 (2011). 
  8. Miklossy, Judith. “Bacterial Amyloid and DNA Are Important Constituents of Senile Plaques: Further Evidence of the Spirochetal and Biofilm Nature of Senile Plaques”. 1 Jan. 2016: 1459 – 1473.
  9. Orr, Miranda E et al. “Can oral health and oral-derived biospecimens predict progression of dementia?” Oral diseases vol. 26,2 (2020): 249-258. doi:10.1111/odi.13201
  10. Shoemark DK, Allen SJ. “The microbiome and disease: reviewing the links between the oral microbiome, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease”. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(3):725-38. doi: 10.3233/JAD-141170. PMID: 25125469.
  11. Kanagasingam S, Chukkapalli SS, Welbury R, Singhrao SK. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Strong Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis Rep. 2020 Dec 14;4(1):501-511. doi: 10.3233/ADR-200250. PMID: 33532698; PMCID: PMC7835991.—https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835991/
  12. Olsen, Ingar. ‘Can Porphyromonas Gingivalis Contribute to Alzheimer’s Disease Already at the Stage of Gingivitis?’ 1 Jan. 2021 : 237 – 241. https://content.iospress.com/download/journal-of-alzheimers-disease-reports/adr210006?id=journal-of-alzheimers-disease-reports%2Fadr210006Periodontal dysbiosis associates with reduced CSF Aβ42 in cognitively normal elderly
  13. Angela R. Kamer Smruti Pushalkar Depthi Gulivindala Tracy Butler Yi Li Kumar Raghava Chowdary Annam Lidia Glodzik Karla V. Ballman Patricia M. Corby Kaj Blennow Henrik Zetterberg Deepak Saxena Mony J. de Leon

Colon Cancer and Oral Health

  1. Ahn, Jiyoung et al. “Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.” Cancer causes & control: CCC vol. 23,3 (2012): 399-404. doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9892-7
  2. Al-Hilu, Suad A, and Wisam H Al-Shujairi. “Dual Role of Bacteria in Carcinoma: Stimulation and Inhibition.” International journal of microbiology vol. 2020 4639761. 24 Aug. 2020, doi:10.1155/2020/4639761
  3. Binder Gallimidi, Adi et al. “Periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum promote tumor progression in an oral-specific chemical carcinogenesis model.” Oncotarget vol. 6,26 (2015): 22613-23. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.4209
  4. Curtis, M A. “Periodontal microbiology–the lid’s off the box again.” Journal of dental research vol. 93,9 (2014): 840-2. doi:10.1177/0022034514542469
  5. Faden, Asmaa A. “The potential role of microbes in oncogenesis with particular emphasis on oral cancer.” Saudi medical journal vol. 37,6 (2016): 607-12. doi:10.15537/Smj.2016.6.14048
  6. Fan, Xiaozhou et al. “Human oral microbiome and prospective risk for pancreatic cancer: a population-based nested case-control study.” Gut vol. 67,1 (2018): 120-127. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-312580
  7. Gallimidi, Adi Binder, et al. “Periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum promote tumor progression in an oral-specific chemical carcinogenesis model.” Oncotarget [Online], 6.26 (2015): 22613-22623. Web. 25 Feb. 2021
  8. Hayes RB, Ahn J, Fan X, et al. Association of Oral Microbiome with Risk for Incident Head and Neck Squamous Cell CancerJAMA Oncol. 2018;4(3):358–365. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.4777
  9. Huh, Ji-Won, and Tae-Young Roh. “Opportunistic detection of Fusobacterium nucleatum as a marker for the early gut microbial dysbiosis.” BMC microbiology vol. 20,1 208. 13 Jul. 2020, doi:10.1186/s12866-020-01887-4
  10. Hussan, Hisham et al. Fusobacterium‘s link to colorectal neoplasia sequenced: A systematic review and future insights.” World journal of gastroenterology vol. 23,48 (2017): 8626-8650. doi:10.3748/wjg. v 23. i48.8626
  11. Irani, Soussan et al. “Periodontitis and oral cancer – current concepts of the etiopathogenesis.” Oncology reviews vol. 14,1 465. 18 Mar. 2020, doi:10.4081/oncol.2020.465
  12. Ito, M., Kanno, S., Nosho, K., Sukawa, Y., Mitsuhashi, K., Kurihara, H., Igarashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tachibana, M., Takahashi, H., Yoshii, S., Takenouchi, T., Hasegawa, T., Okita, K., Hirata, K., Maruyama, R., Suzuki, H., Imai, K., Yamamoto, H. and Shinomura, Y. (2015), Association of Fusobacterium nucleatum with clinical and molecular features in colorectal serrated pathway. Int. J. Cancer, 137: 1258-1268. 
  13. Kapatral, Vinayak et al. “Genome sequence and analysis of the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 25586.” Journal of bacteriology vol. 184,7 (2002): 2005-18. doi:10.1128/jb.184.7.2005-2018.2002
  14. Karpathy SE, Qin X, Gioia J, Jiang H, Liu Y, Petrosino JF, et al. (2007) Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium nucleatum Subspecies Polymorphum — a Genetically Tractable Fusobacterium. PLoS ONE 2(8): e659. 
  15. Karpiński, Tomasz. (2019). Role of Oral Microbiota in Cancer Development. Microorganisms. 7. 20. 10.3390/microorganisms7010020.
  16. Kerr, A Ross. “The oral microbiome and cancer.” Journal of dental hygiene: JDH vol. 89 Suppl 1 (2015): 20-3.
  17. Lafuente Ibáñez de Mendoza, Irene et al. “Role of Porphyromonas gingivalis in oral squamous cell carcinoma development: A systematic review.” Journal of periodontal research vol. 55,1 (2020): 13-22. doi:10.1111/jre.12691
  18. Mager, D L et al. “The salivary microbiota as a diagnostic indicator of oral cancer: a descriptive, non-randomized study of cancer-free and oral squamous cell carcinoma subjects.” Journal of translational medicine vol. 3 27. 7 Jul. 2005, doi:10.1186/1479-5876-3-27
  19. Malinowski, Bartosz et al. “The role of Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis in pathogenesis of esophageal cancer.” Infectious agents and cancer vol. 14 3. 30 Jan. 2019, doi:10.1186/s13027-019-0220-2
  20. Nosho K, Sukawa Y, Adachi Y, Ito M, Mitsuhashi K, Kurihara H, Kanno S, Yamamoto I, Ishigami K, Igarashi H, Maruyama R, Imai K, Yamamoto H, Shinomura Y. Association of Fusobacterium nucleatum with immunity and molecular alterations in colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan 14;22(2):557-66. doi: 10.3748/wjg. v 22. i2.557. PMID: 26811607; PMCID: PMC4716059.
  21. Olsen, Ingar & Yilmaz, Ozlem. (2019). Possible role of Porphyromonas gingivalis in orodigestive cancers. Journal of Oral Microbiology. 11. 1563410. 10.1080/20002297.2018.1563410.
  22. Paster, B J et al. “Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque.” Journal of bacteriology vol. 183,12 (2001): 3770-83. doi:10.1128/JB.183.12.3770-3783.2001
  23. Shin, J.M., Luo, T., Kamarajan, P. et al. Microbial Communities Associated with Primary and Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma – A High Fusobacterial and Low Streptococcal SignatureSci Rep 7, 9934 (2017).
  24. Signat B, Roques C, Poulet P, Duffaut D. Fusobacterium nucleatum in periodontal health and disease. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2011;13(2):25-36. Epub 2011 Jan 10. PMID: 21220789.
  25. Vesty, Anna et al. “Microbial and inflammatory-based salivary biomarkers of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.” Clinical and experimental dental research vol. 4,6 255-262. 28 Nov. 2018, doi:10.1002/cre2.139
  26. Wang, J., Qi, J., Zhao, H. et al. Metagenomic sequencing reveals microbiota and its functional potential associated with periodontal diseaseSci Rep 3, 1843 (2013). 
  27. Whitmore, Sarah E, and Richard J Lamont. “Oral bacteria and cancer.” PLoS pathogens vol. 10,3 e1003933. 27 Mar. 2014, doi:10.1371/journal. ppat. 1003933
  28. Whitmore, Sarah E, and Richard J Lamont. “Oral bacteria and cancer.” PLoS pathogens vol. 10,3 e1003933. 27 Mar. 2014, doi:10.1371/journal. ppat. 1003933
  29. Xia, X., Wu, W.K.K., Wong, S.H. et al. Bacteria pathogens drive host colonic epithelial cell promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in colorectal cancerMicrobiome 8, 108 (2020).
  30. Xiao, Li et al. “The effect of periodontal bacteria infection on incidence and prognosis of cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Medicine vol. 99,15 (2020): e19698. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000019698
  31. Yang, Yongzhi et al. “Fusobacterium nucleatum Increases Proliferation of Colorectal Cancer Cells and Tumor Development in Mice by Activating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling to Nuclear Factor-κB, and Up-regulating Expression of MicroRNA-21.” Gastroenterology vol. 152,4 (2017): 851-866.e24. doi:10.1053/j. gastro.2016.11.018

Oral Dysbiosis

  1. Diaz PI, Hoare A, Hong BY. Subgingival Microbiome Shifts and Community Dynamics in Periodontal Diseases. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2016 Jul;44(7):421-35. PMID: 27514154. —https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27514154/
  2. Radaic A, Kapila YL. The oralome and its dysbiosis: New insights into oral microbiome-host interactions. Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 2021;19:1335-1360. Published 2021 Feb 27. doi:10.1016/j.csbj.2021.02.010 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960681/pdf/main.pdf
  3. Sudhakara P, Gupta A, Bhardwaj A, Wilson A. Oral Dysbiotic Communities and Their Implications in Systemic Diseases. Dent J (Basel). 2018 Apr 16;6(2):10. doi: 10.3390/dj6020010. PMID: 29659479; PMCID: PMC6023521. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6023521/
  4. Payne MA, Hashim A, Alsam A, Joseph S, Aduse-Opoku J, Wade WG, Curtis MA. Horizontal and Vertical Transfer of Oral Microbial Dysbiosis and Periodontal Disease. J Dent Res. 2019 Dec;98(13):1503-1510. doi: 10.1177/0022034519877150. Epub 2019 Sep 27. PMID: 31560607. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31560607/
  5. Jiang Y, Brandt BW, Buijs MJ, Cheng L, Exterkate RAM, Crielaard W, Deng DM. Manipulation of Saliva-Derived Microcosm Biofilms To Resemble Dysbiotic Subgingival Microbiota. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2021 Jan 15;87(3):e02371-20. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02371-20. PMID: 33158898; PMCID: PMC7848911. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33158898/
  6. Baraniya D, Naginyte M, Chen T, Albandar JM, Chialastri SM, Devine DA, Marsh PD, Al-Hebshi NN. Modeling Normal and Dysbiotic Subgingival Microbiomes: Effect of Nutrients. J Dent Res. 2020 Jun;99(6):695-702. doi: 10.1177/0022034520902452. Epub 2020 Jan 30. PMID: 31999932; PMCID: PMC7243421. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31999932/
  7. Cugini C, Ramasubbu N, Tsiagbe VK, Fine DH. Dysbiosis From a Microbial and Host Perspective Relative to Oral Health and Disease. Front Microbiol. 2021;12:617485. Published 2021 Mar 5. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.617485 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982844/pdf/fmicb-12-617485.pdf

Crohn’s Disease and Oral Health

  1. Doctor, Michael J et al. “Alterations in diversity of the oral microbiome in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.” Inflammatory bowel diseases vol. 18,5 (2012): 935-42. doi:10.1002/ibd.21874
  2. Kaakoush, Nadeem O et al. “Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection.” Clinical microbiology reviews vol. 28,3 (2015): 687-720. doi:10.1128/CMR.00006-15
  3. Liu, Fang et al. “The Clinical Importance of Campylobacter concisus and Other Human Hosted Campylobacter Species.” Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology vol. 8 243. 24 Jul. 2018, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2018.00243
  4. Pascal, Victoria et al. “A microbial signature for Crohn’s disease.” Gut vol. 66,5 (2017): 813-822. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313235
  5. Xun, Zhe et al. “Dysbiosis and Ecotypes of the Salivary Microbiome Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and the Assistance in Diagnosis of Diseases Using Oral Bacterial Profiles.” Frontiers in microbiology vol. 9 1136. 30 May. 2018, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01136

Preterm Birth and the Oral Microbiome

  1. Han, Yiping W et al. “Fusobacterium nucleatum induces premature and term stillbirths in pregnant mice: implication of oral bacteria in preterm birth.” Infection and immunity vol. 72,4 (2004): 2272-9. doi:10.1128/iai.72.4.2272-2279.2004 https://iai.asm.org/content/72/4/2272
  2. Kim A. Boggess, Pathogenicity of periodontal pathogens during pregnancy, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 193, Issue 2, 2005, Pages 311-312, ISSN 0002-9378, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.04.056. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002937805005740)
  3. McGaw, Tim. “Periodontal disease and preterm delivery of low-birth-weight infants.” Journal (Canadian Dental Association) vol. 68,3 (2002): 165-9. https://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-68/issue-3/165.pdf
  4. Shanthi, Vanka et al. “Association of pregnant women periodontal status to preterm and low-birth weight babies: A systematic and evidence-based review.” Dental research journal vol. 9,4 (2012): 368-80. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491321/
  5. Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Middleton P, Esposito M, Glenny AM. Treating periodontal disease for preventing adverse birth outcomes in pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 12;6(6):CD005297. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005297.pub3. PMID: 28605006; PMCID: PMC6481493. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28605006/
  6. Mervyn Turton, Charlene W.J. Africa,Further evidence for periodontal disease as a risk indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes, International Dental Journal, mVolume 67, Issue 3, 2017, Pages 148-156, ISSN 0020-6539, https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12274. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020653920317020

Oral Microbial Shifts in Oral Health and Disease

  1. Keller D & Cochrane B. (2019) Composition of Microorganisms in Periodontal Pockets. J Oral Health Dent, 2(2): 123-136.
  2. Berezow, Alex B, and Richard P Darveau. “Microbial shift and periodontitis.” Periodontology 2000 vol. 55,1 (2011): 36-47. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0757.2010.00350.x
  3. Haririan, Hady et al. “Microbial analysis of subgingival plaque samples compared to that of whole saliva in patients with periodontitis.” Journal of periodontology vol. 85,6 (2014): 819-28. doi:10.1902/jop.2013.130306

Periodontal Biofilms and Oral Health

  1. Frias, J et al. “Periodontal pathogens produce quorum sensing signal molecules.” Infection and immunity vol. 69,5 (2001): 3431-4. doi:10.1128/IAI.69.5.3431-3434.2001
  2. Jiao, Yang et al. “Advancing antimicrobial strategies for managing oral biofilm infections.” International journal of oral science vol. 11,3 28. 1 Oct. 2019, doi:10.1038/s41368-019-0062-1
  3. Szafrański, Szymon P et al. “Quorum sensing of Streptococcus mutans is activated by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and by the periodontal microbiome.” BMC genomics vol. 18,1 238. 20 Mar. 2017, doi:10.1186/s12864-017-3618-5
  4. Vieira Colombo, Ana Paula et al. “Periodontal-disease-associated biofilm: A reservoir for pathogens of medical importance.” Microbial pathogenesis vol. 94 (2016): 27-34. doi:10.1016/j. micpath. 2015.09.009
  5. Lasserre JF, Brecx MC, Toma S. Oral Microbes, Biofilms and Their Role in Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases. Materials (Basel). 2018;11(10):1802. Published 2018 Sep 22. doi:10.3390/ma11101802
  6. https://www.mdpi.com/343008

Saliva Testing and Oral Microbial Health

  1. Haririan, Hady et al. “Microbial analysis of subgingival plaque samples compared to that of whole saliva in patients with periodontitis.” Journal of periodontology vol. 85,6 (2014): 819-28. doi:10.1902/jop.2013.130306
  2. Choi, Heeyoung et al. “Real-time PCR quantification of 9 periodontal pathogens in saliva samples from periodontally healthy Korean young adults.” Journal of periodontal & implant science vol. 48,4 261-271. 30 Aug. 2018, doi:10.5051/jpis.2018.48.4.261
  3. Guentsch, Arndt et al. “Comparison of gingival crevicular fluid sampling methods in patients with severe chronic periodontitis.” Journal of periodontology vol. 82,7 (2011): 1051-60. doi:10.1902/jop.2011.100565
  4. Paster, B J et al. “Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque.” Journal of bacteriology vol. 183,12 (2001): 3770-83. doi:10.1128/JB.183.12.3770-3783.2001

Peri-implantitis Infections

  1. Lasserre JF, Brecx MC, Toma S. Oral Microbes, Biofilms and Their Role in Periodontal and Peri-Implant DiseasesMaterials (Basel). 2018;11(10):1802. Published 2018 Sep 22. doi:10.3390/ma11101802
  2. https://www.mdpi.com/343008
  3. Charalampakis G, Belibasakis GN. Microbiome of peri-implant infections: lessons from conventional, molecular and metagenomic analyses. Virulence. 2015;6(3):183-7. doi: 10.4161/21505594.2014.980661. Epub 2015 Feb 5. PMID: 25654499; PMCID: PMC4601299.
  4. Heuer W, Kettenring A, Stumpp SN, Eberhard J, Gellermann E, Winkel A, Stiesch M. Metagenomic analysis of the peri-implant and periodontal microflora in patients with clinical signs of gingivitis or mucositis. Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Jun;16(3):843-50. doi: 10.1007/s00784-011-0561-8. Epub 2011 May 3. PMID: 21538072.
  5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21538072/
  6. Suzuki, Jon & Misch, Carl. (2018). Periodontal and Maintenance Complications. 10.1016/B978-0-323-37580-1.00018-4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324108930 
  7. Zheng H, Xu L, Wang Z, Li L, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Chen T, Lin J, Chen F. Subgingival microbiome in patients with healthy and ailing dental implants. Sci Rep. 2015 Jun 16;5:10948. doi: 10.1038/srep10948. PMID: 26077225; PMCID: PMC4468443.
  8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26077225/
  9. Cortelli SC, Cortelli JR, Romeiro RL, Costa FO, Aquino DR, Orzechowski PR, Araújo VC, Duarte PM. Frequency of periodontal pathogens in equivalent peri-implant and periodontal clinical statuses. Arch Oral Biol. 2013 Jan;58(1):67-74. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.09.004. Epub 2012 Nov 3. PMID: 23127822.
  10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23127822/
  11. Nastych O, Goncharuk-Khomyn M, Foros A, Cavalcanti A, Yavuz I, Tsaryk V. Comparison of Bacterial Load Parameters in Subgingival Plaque during Peri-implantitis and Periodontitis Using the RT-PCR MethodActa Stomatol Croat. 2020;54(1):32-43. doi:10.15644/asc54/1/4 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233121/
  12. Canullo L, Peñarrocha-Oltra D, Covani U, Rossetti PH. Microbiologic and Clinical Findings of Implants in Healthy Condition and with Peri-Implantitis. Int J Oral Maxillofacial Implants. 2015 Jul-Aug;30(4):834-42. doi: 10.11607/jomi.3947. PMID: 26252036. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26252036/
  13. Zhuang LF, Watt RM, Mattheos N, Si MS, Lai HC, Lang NP. Periodontal and peri-implant microbiota in patients with healthy and inflamed periodontal and peri-implant tissues. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016 Jan;27(1):13-21. doi: 10.1111/clr.12508. Epub 2014 Nov 14. PMID: 25399962.
  14. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/clr.12508
  15. Sahrmann P, Gilli F, Wiedemeier DB, Attin T, Schmidlin PR, Karygianni L. The Microbiome of Peri-Implantitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisMicroorganisms. 2020;8(5):661. Published 2020 May 1. doi:10.3390/microorganisms8050661
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284896/
  17. Lafaurie GI, Sabogal MA, Castillo DM, Rincón MV, Gómez LA, Lesmes YA, Chambrone L. Microbiome and Microbial Biofilm Profiles of Peri-Implantitis: A Systematic Review. J Periodontology. 2017 Oct;88(10):1066-1089. doi: 10.1902/jop.2017.170123. Epub 2017 Jun 19. PMID: 28625077.
  18. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28625077/
  19. Albertini M, López-Cerero L, O’Sullivan MG, Chereguini CF, Ballesta S, Ríos V, Herrero-Climent M, Bullón P. Assessment of periodontal and opportunistic flora in patients with peri-implantitis. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015 Aug;26(8):937-941. doi: 10.1111/clr.12387. Epub 2014 Apr 10. PMID: 24720498.
  20. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24720498/
  21. Rakic M, Grusovin MG, Canullo L. The Microbiologic Profile Associated with Peri-Implantitis in Humans: A Systematic Review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2016 Mar-Apr;31(2):359-68. doi: 10.11607/jomi.4150. Epub 2015 Oct 6. PMID: 26478978.
  22. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26478978/
  23. Faveri M, Figueiredo LC, Shibli JA, Pérez-Chaparro PJ, Feres M. Microbiological diversity of peri-implantitis biofilms. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;830:85-96. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-11038-7_5. PMID: 25366222. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25366222/
  24. Robitaille N, Reed DN, Walters JD, Kumar PS. Periodontal and peri-implant diseases: identical or fraternal infections? Mol Oral Microbiol. 2016 Aug;31(4):285-301. doi: 10.1111/omi.12124. Epub 2015 Sep 15. PMID: 26255984.
  25. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26255984/
  26. Kumar PS, Mason MR, Brooker MR, O’Brien K. Pyrosequencing reveals unique microbial signatures associated with healthy and failing dental implants. J Clin Periodontol. 2012 May;39(5):425-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2012.01856.x. Epub 2012 Mar 14. PMID: 22417294; PMCID: PMC3323747.
  27. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22417294/
  28. Dabdoub SM, Tsigarida AA, Kumar PS. Patient-specific analysis of periodontal and peri-implant microbiomes. J Dent Res. 2013 Dec;92(12 Suppl):168S-75S. doi: 10.1177/0022034513504950. Epub 2013 Oct 24. PMID: 24158341; PMCID: PMC3827621.
  29. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24158341/
  30. Ramanauskaite A, Juodzbalys G. Diagnostic Principles of Peri-Implantitis: A Systematic Review and Guidelines for Peri-Implantitis Diagnosis ProposalJ Oral Maxillofac Res. 2016;7(3):e8. Published 2016 Sep 9. doi:10.5037/jomr.2016.7308https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5100648
  31. Sousa V, Nibali L, Spratt D, Dopico J, Mardas N, Petrie A, Donos N. Peri-implant and periodontal microbiome diversity in aggressive periodontitis patients: a pilot study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2017 May;28(5):558-570. doi: 10.1111/clr.12834. Epub 2016 May 11. PMID: 27170047. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27170047/
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Dental Caries and the Oral Microbiome

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  2. Xu, He et al. “Oral Microbiome Shifts from Caries-Free to Caries-Affected Status in 3-Year-Old Chinese Children: A Longitudinal Study.” Frontiers in microbiology vol. 9 2009. 28 Aug. 2018, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02009

Cardiovascular Disease and Oral Health

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